In this work long-term climate changes near the reserve and its influence on a reserve biota are considered. The following climatic variables are investigated: average monthly temperatures, the minimum and maximum temperatures for every month, duration of the bezmorozny period, period duration with steady snow cover, the monthly sums of rainfall. Phenological supervision are presented by the following ranks: date of freezing (release from the Lake Baikal in Davsh's bay, date of the first (last) frost, start date of blossoming of a dogrose (Rosa acicularis), blooming of needles of a larch (Larix sibirica), blooming of leaves of a birch (Betula pubescens), the termination of a leaf fall of a birch, the first meeting of a city swallow (funnels) (Delichon urbica L.), last meeting of a city swallow, first meeting of a starling (Sturnus vulgaris L.), first meeting of a kryakva (Anas platyirhynhos L.) last meeting of a kryakva. The ranks reflecting dynamics of number of mammals (results of winter accounting of trace activity, ZMU) are presented by data on a sable (to Martes zibellina L.), proteins (Sciurus vulgaris L.), white hare (Lepus timidus L.) and elk (Alces alces L.). Besides ranks of dynamics of fructification of a cedar (mark and frequencies of emergence of the fires in the territory of the reserve were processed.
The Barguzin Reserve is located in the northeast of Baikal, in its most severe climatic part, between the central crest of Barguzin Range and the coast of Baikal, and was stretched in length at fifty kilometers.
In June in the Alpine belt from the coast reindeers rise. Elks come to upper courses of the rivers. In highlands the considerable part of bears keeps. Some of them, apparently, live here constantly. The sable meets to the upper bound of forest vegetation, but its number in such places is, as a rule, low. But the ermine is ordinary. In a subalpine belt there lives also a hare white hare,
The winter avifauna of open habitats is poor. With approach of spring the shape of glades sharply changes. On the filled-in meadows cranes, lapwings, turukhtana, Asian and ordinary snipes, the doll, chernysh, carriers, big packs of temnozoby and some other thrushes, various porridge stop on rest and feeding. It is often possible to see the bushes flying edges field luny, the buzzard, a black kite, a pustelga, a sea eagle-belokhvost, a skopa and other predators meet.
Coast of reservoirs often visit all hoofed animals. Elks are fed here in the winter. The abundance of mouse-like rodents in grown vysokotravy and the cluttered-up floodplains attracts a sable. In valleys of the rivers the ermine is especially numerous. Here caress meets.
All other species of mammals which are found in a mountain taiga live and in other high-rise belts. From hoofed animals it is an elk and a red deer. From the other — a bear, marten, a squirrel, a hare white hare, small rodents. From birds, characteristic only for a mountain and forest belt, it is necessary to mark out a motley stone thrush, an olyapka, a wren, a gray bullfinch, very rare for the reserve to a kamenushchk. The majority of the mass bird species living in a mountain and forest belt meet and in other high-rise belts. The hazel grouse, many birds of prey, woodpeckers, a kedrovka, kuksha, titmouses are that, - Winter conditions in mountains it is more difficult than a wagtail, than on the coast. With loss of deep snow reindeers, elks, Manchurian deer otkochevyvat on the plain, many birds depart. With approach of spring the return process is observed.
Territorial groups of animals of a mountain and forest belt have much in common with communities of the woods of coastal plains. From mammals, characteristic for a mountain taiga, it is possible to note only a kabarga and the Altai creeper. Distribution of a kabarga differs in mosaicity, on considerable space of a mountain and forest belt it is practically absent. The Altai creeper lives mainly in the Alpine and subalpine belts, and in a mountain and forest belt is, as a rule, small. The small animal is widespread only there. where there are stone scatterings in which it finds shelters, and at least small open sites with a different travnoy vegetation where can find food and prepare hay for the winter period.
Baikal was stretched in length at 650 km therefore also the climate of different parts of the lake differs. On A. Botkin's researches "the climate of the southernmost tip of Baikal is more than two times softer than its northernmost tip".